The debate surrounding this disorder is intense. Debates encompass issues such as, what causes it, how to assess ADHD, and how to deal with it effectively. This essay deals with some of the debates in an attempt to simplify the issues. The first question that needs to be answered is what is ADHD?
AS, NV contributed equally as first authors.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The aim of this paper is to provide a short and concise review which can be used to inform affected children and adults; family members of affected children and adults, and other medical, paramedical, non-medical, and educational professionals about the disorder.
This paper has also tried to look into the process of how ADHD develops; what are the associated problems; and how many other children and adults are affected by such problems all over the world basically to understand ADHD more precisely in order to develop a better medical and or non-medical multimodal intervention plan.
If preschool teachers and clinicians are aware of what the research tells us about ADHD, the varying theories of its cause, and which areas need further research, the knowledge will assist them in supporting the families of children with ADHD.
By including information in this review about the connection between biological behavior, it is hoped that preschool teachers and clinicians at all levels will feel more confident about explaining to parents of ADHD children, and older ADHD children themselves about the probable causes of ADHD.
Despite this long research history, ADHD is not necessarily well understood among the lay public, given the many controversies and public misconceptions concerning the disorder. The DSM also allows the classification of two sub-type disorders: Other studies have found similar prevalence rates in elementary school-age children Etiological elucidation of Adhd children research paper deficit hyperactivity disorder Underlying etiological explanations of ADHD can be simply divided into biological and environmental.
In simple terms biological explanations include genetics, brain structure and their influence on neuropsychology, while predominant environmental explanations include problems during and after birth, exposure to environmental toxins, parenting and diet.
Several reasons exist for this particular focus, dopaminergic drugs methylphenidate are clinically efficacious in Adhd children research paper the core problems associated with ADHD. Based on this process assumption, a study by LaHoste et al. A flanker task was administered to adolescent twins age 12 including 99 monozygotic MZ and dizygotic DZ pairs.
This study provides the first evidence for heritable individual differences in the neural substrates of action monitoring and suggests that ERN, CRN, and Pe can potentially serve as endophenotypes for genetic studies of personality traits and psychopathology associated with abnormal regulation of behavior.
Advances in the understanding of the neural substrates of sustained and spatial attention arising from the cognitive neurosciences can help guide putative linkages in cognitive genetics.
Accordingly, individual differences in spatial attention have been associated with variation in an alpha-4 cholinergic receptor gene CHRNA4.
APOE-4 allele dosage has been shown to influence the speed of attentional reorienting in independent samples of nonaffected individuals. Preliminary evidence in both healthy children and children with ADHD suggests association with variants of the DAT1 gene and the control of spatial attention across the hemifields.
However certain meta-analytic studies have questioned the robust association between dopaminergic genes and ADHD. As well as gene-gene interactions, the extent to which having a cocktail of different genetic influences might elevate risk for ADHD. Brain structure A wealth of literature has examined the anatomical structure of the brain in children with ADHD.
Using brain scanning technology such as MRI these studies suggest that the brain circuits linking the prefrontal cortex, striatum and cerebellum are not functioning normally in children with ADHD.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed description of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), its causes, symptoms and treatments. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: An MSW Clinical Research Paper to serve children with ADHD. This research study proposes to investigate the perception of teachers and school social workers about the effectiveness of multi-modal strategies on. Doing a research paper on ADHD? I am a reference that you can use for your paper. Visit my site and ask me questions.
These results suggest that compromised brain morphology of selected regions is related to behavioral measures of inhibition and attention. Studies using PET to assess cerebral glucose metabolism have found diminished metabolism in adults with ADHD, particularly in the frontal region.
Another study pointed that children with ADHD were found to have a smaller corpus callosum, particularly in the area of the genu and splenium and that region just anterior to the splenium.
This would be consistent with views that the cerebellum plays a major role in executive functioning and the motor presetting aspects of sensory perception that derive from planning and other executive actions. Neurobiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Neurobiology of ADHD has been another valued topic of investigation.
The bottom-up theories propose disturbances in subcortical regions, such as the thalamus, and hypothalamus and reticular activating systems are responsible for ADHD symptomology.
The top-down theories attribute the dysfunction to frontal and prefrontal and sagittal cortices. Smaller frontal lobe or right prefrontal cortex was found for the ADHD groups in all studies that examined this measure. Five of six studies found a smaller anterior or posterior corpus callosum.
Four of six found loss of the normal caudate asymmetry, and these four also found a smaller left or right globus pallidus. The basal ganglia are a collection of large subcortical structures that can be divided into two sets of core structures: The striatum receives input from the entire cerebral cortex, thalamus, substantia nigra, and amygdala and sends projections to the pallidum and substantia nigra.
The pallidum sends input to the thalamic nuclei and additional subcortical nuclei, where information will be sent back to the frontal or pre-frontal cortex. The primary neurotransmitter involved in modulation of the basal ganglia is dopamine, and disruption of this system has been found in ADHD.
Initial studies found higher levels of the dopamine metabolite, and homovanillic acid in cerebral spinal fluid were positively correlated with the amount of hyperactivity in boys. These children were also more likely to show a reversed caudate asymmetry when compared to healthy controls, with the left being smaller than right.
Moreover, a significant relationship between the reduction in left caudate volume and performance on behavioral inhibition tasks was found. This evidence suggests that asymmetry of the caudate regardless of volume has important implications in attention and behavioral control.Free research papers, free research paper samples and free example research projects on ADHD topics are plagiarized.
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Teaching Children with ADHD – Education Term Paper ADHD has become a “buzz” term in the educational environment. Since ADHD is so commonly encountered by educators in both special education and general education, it is crucial for a teacher to understand it, know the science behind it, and be able to provide the best educational environment for students with it.
Project to Learn About ADHD in Youth (PLAY) The Project to Learn About ADHD in Youth (PLAY) was a population-based research project with the University of South Carolina and the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. It was conducted to shed more light on how many school-age children have ADHD, how the condition develops over time, what other conditions and risks children may.
Research Paper on ADHD. Review of Literature. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a mental disorder in children which includes a group of symptoms that comprises loss of attention, impulsive behavior and hyperactivity.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a detailed description of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), its causes, symptoms and treatments.
Free research paper example on ADHD: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, is a very complex condition that generates a great deal of rutadeltambor.com debate surrounding this disorder is intense.
Debates encompass issues such as, what causes it, how to assess ADHD, and how to deal with it .