Documents from the Constitutional Congress and the Constitutional Convention, The Continental Congress Broadside Collection titles and the Constitutional Convention Broadside Collection 21 titles contain documents relating to the work of Congress and the drafting and ratification of the Constitution. Items include extracts of the journals of Congress, resolutions, proclamations, committee reports, treaties, and early printed versions of the United States Constitution and the Declaration of Independence.
History of the Jury History of the Grand Jury History of the Jury By the time the United States Constitution and the Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, the institution of trial by jury was almost universally revered, so revered that its history had been traced back to Magna Carta.
Henry II regularized this type of proceeding to establish royal control over the machinery of justice, first in civil trials and then in criminal trials. Trial by petit jury was not employed at least until the reign of Henry III, in which the jury was first essentially a body of witnesses, called for their knowledge of the case; not until the reign of Henry VI did it become the trier of evidence.
It was during the Seventeenth Century that the jury emerged as a safeguard for the criminally accused.
A right to jury trial is granted to criminal defendants in order to prevent oppression by the Government. Those who wrote our constitutions knew from history and experience that it was necessary to protect against unfounded criminal charges brought to eliminate enemies and against judges too responsive to the voice of higher authority.
The framers of the constitutions strove to create an independent judiciary but insisted upon further protection against arbitrary action.
Providing an accused with the right to be tried by a jury of his peers gave him an inestimable safeguard against the corrupt overzealous prosecutor and against the compliant, biased, or eccentric judge.
Fear of unchecked power. One of the earliest concepts of Grand Juries dates back to early Greece where the Athenians used an accusatory body. During the years toone of the Dooms laws stated that for each men, 12 were to be named to act as an accusing body.
They were cautioned "not to accuse an innocent man or spare a guilty one. There is evidence that the courts of that time summoned a body of sworn neighbors to present crimes that had come to their knowledge.
Since the members of that accusing jury were selected from small jurisdictions, it was natural that they could present accusations based on their personal knowledge. Historians agree that the Assize [court session or assembly] of Clarendon in provided the ground work for our present Grand Jury system.
During the reign of Henry IIto regain for the crown the powers usurped by Thomas Becket, Chancellor of England, 12 "good and lawful men" in each village were assembled to reveal the names of those suspected of crimes.
It was during this same period that juries were divided into two types, civil and criminal, with the development of each influencing the other. The oath taken by these jurors provided that they would carry out their duties faithfully, that they would aggrieve no one through enmity nor deference to anyone through love, and that they would conceal those things that they had heard.
By the yearthese accusing juries were given the authority to inquire into the maintenance of bridges and highways, defects of jails, and whether the Sheriff had kept in jail anyone who should have been brought before the justices. In America, the Massachusetts Bay Colony impaneled the first Grand Jury in to consider cases of murder, robbery and wife beating.
As early asthe value of the Grand Jury was recognized as opposing the Royalists.
These colonial Grand Juries expressed their independence by refusing to indict leaders of the Stamp Actand refusing to bring libel charges against the editors of the Boston Gazette A union with other colonies to oppose British taxes was supported by the Philadelphia Grand Jury in That said, many activists, politicians, journalists, and academics have used half-truths and outright falsehoods about racial issues that divide people and stir up hatred.
The Academic Decathlon (also called AcaDec, AcaDeca or AcDec) is the only annual high school academic competition organized by the non-profit United States Academic Decathlon Association (USAD).The competition consists of seven multiple choice tests, two performance events, and an essay.
|II. Planning for polling and results announcement||Louisiana In the United States the process of voir dire is often much more in depth than in other countries and its practical implementation is somewhat controversial because of this. The amount of privacy that the potential jurors are afforded when asked questions raises the issue of the definition of "impartial jury".|
|Jury Service | United States Courts||Super Quiz[ edit ] The format of the Super Quiz differs from that of the other subject areas. Added init offers a culminating championship event.|
Academic Decathlon was created by Robert Peterson in for local schools in Orange County, . Top 10% Absolutely Positively the Best 30 Death Penalty Websites on the Internet (Top 1%) Death Penalty Information Center Probably the single most comprehensive and authoritative internet rersource on the death penalty, including hundreds of anti-death penalty articles, essays, and quotes on issues of deterrence, cost, execution of the innocent, racism, public opinion, women, juveniles.
Actually, this torture rumour is really debatable. Some say that there is no such torturing in the Bush era. However, some other say that this is already a tradition in White House, even before the Bush era but the staffs are asked to keep silent about this kind of scandal and rumour.
United States Courts Skip to main content. About Federal Courts. Federal Courts & the Public. Learn About Jury Service. Those qualified are randomly chosen to be summoned to appear for jury duty. This selection process helps to make sure that jurors represent a cross section of the community, without regard to race, gender, national.
Jury selection is the selection of the people who will serve on a jury during a jury trial. The group of potential jurors (the "jury pool", also known as the venire) is first selected from among the community using a reasonably random method.