China[ edit ] Fluoridation is banned in China. Naturally high fluoride levels in water are a serious problem in China. It was interrupted during — due to the shortage of sodium silico-fluoride.
The Colosseum in Rome, built c. The Roman Empire at its greatest extent, AD. Romea settlement around a ford on the river Tiber conventionally founded in BC, was ruled for a period of years by a monarchical system, initially with sovereigns of Latin and Sabine origin, later by Etruscan kings.
The tradition handed down seven kings: In BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city and established an oligarchic republic. The long and triumphant reign of the first emperor, Augustusbegan a golden age of peace and prosperity. The Italian Peninsula was named Italia and, as the territory of the city of Rome, maintained a special status which made it "not a province, but the Domina ruler of the provinces ".
At its height under Trajanit covered 5 million square kilometres.
The Western Empireunder the pressure of the barbarian invasionseventually dissolved in AD, when its last Emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic chief Odoacerwhile the Eastern half of the Empire survived for another thousand years. The invasion of another Germanic tribethe Lombardslate in the same century, reduced the Byzantine presence to the rump realm of the Exarchate of Ravenna and started the end of political unity of the peninsula for the next 1, years.
The Lombard kingdom was subsequently absorbed into the Frankish Empire by Charlemagne in the late 8th century. The Franks also helped the formation of the Papal States in central Italy. Until the 13th century, Italian politics was dominated by the relations between the Holy Roman Emperors and the Papacy, with most of the Italian city-states siding for the former Ghibellines or for the latter Guelphs from momentary convenience.
Given the power vacuum caused by extreme territorial fragmentation and the struggle between the Empire and the Holy Seelocal communities sought autonomous ways to maintain law and order.
In a league of city-states, the Lombard Leaguedefeated the German emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the Battle of Legnanothus ensuring effective independence for most of northern and central Italian cities.
Flag of the Italian Navydisplaying the coat of arms of the most prominent maritime republics: VeniceGenoaPisa and Amalfi In coastal and southern areas, the maritime republics grew to eventually dominate the Mediterranean and monopolise trade routes to the Orient.
They were independent thalassocratic city-states, though most of them originated from territories once belonging to the Byzantine Empire. All these cities during the time of their independence had similar systems of government in which the merchant class had considerable power.
Although in practice these were oligarchical, and bore little resemblance to a modern democracythe relative political freedom they afforded was conducive to academic and artistic advancement.
The wealth such business brought to Italy meant that large public and private artistic projects could be commissioned.
The republics were heavily involved in the Crusadesproviding support but most especially taking advantage of the political and trading opportunities resulting from these wars.
In Sardiniathe former Byzantine provinces became independent states known in Italian as Giudicatialthough some parts of the island became controlled by Genoa or Pisa until the Aragonese annexation in the 15th century.
The Black Death pandemic of left its mark on Italy by killing perhaps one third of the population. Early Modern Main articles: In the 14th and 15th centuries, northern-central Italy was divided into a number of warring city-statesthe rest of the peninsula being occupied by the larger Papal States and the Kingdom of Sicilyreferred to here as Naples.
Though many of these city-states were often formally subordinate to foreign rulers, as in the case of the Duchy of Milanwhich was officially a constituent state of the mainly Germanic Holy Roman Empirethe city-states generally managed to maintain de facto independence from the foreign sovereigns that had seized Italian lands following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire.
The strongest among these city-states gradually absorbed the surrounding territories giving birth to the Signorieregional states often led by merchant families which founded local dynasties. War between the city-states was endemic, and primarily fought by armies of mercenaries known as condottieribands of soldiers drawn from around Europe, especially Germany and Switzerland, led largely by Italian captains.
This peace would hold for the next forty years. Leonardo da Vincithe quintessential Renaissance manin a self-portrait, c.With member countries, staff from more countries, and offices in over locations, the World Bank Group is a unique global partnership: five institutions working for sustainable solutions that reduce poverty and build shared prosperity in developing countries.
Southern Europe is a region of the European continent. Most people see Spain, Portugal, Italy and Greece and over all the Mediterranean countries of the European continent as parts of Southern Europe. Italy is in south central Europe.
It consists of a peninsula shaped like a high–heeled boot and several islands, encompassing , square miles (, square kilometers).
The most important of the islands are Sicily in the south and Sardinia in the northwest. Location of Italy (dark green) – in Europe (light green & dark grey) – in the European Union (light green) – .
More information about Albania is available on the Albania Page and from other Department of State publications and other sources listed at the end of this fact sheet.. U.S.-ALBANIA RELATIONS. The United States established diplomatic relations with Albania in , following its independence from the Ottoman Empire.
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