An intimate look at the people ensnared by the US detention and deportation system, the largest in the world On a bright Phoenix morning, Elena Santiago opened her door to find her house surrounded by a platoon of federal immigration agents. Within hours, she was deported to the rough border town of Nogales, Sonora, with nothing but the clothes on her back. Her two-year-old daughter and fifteen-year-old son, both American citizens, were taken by the state of Arizona and consigned to foster care.
The educational attainment of the children's mother. The socio-economic level of the children's home. In-home parental promotion of preschoolers' skills acquisitions, such as reading and numbers, game playing, and the creation of a stable, stimulating environment.
Parental aspirations expectations for children's achievement, and parents' own enthusiasm for, and attitudes toward education and learning.
In-home parent-child discussions, valuing of children's opinions and conversation, and social interaction, i.
Parental supplementation of children's education with enrichment activities, such as libraries and museums, sports, music, travel, and family hobbies. Parental encouragement of older children's self-reliance and autonomy. Homework in elementary school.
Routine parental involvement and help with homework. Extended parent-teacher contact beyond the minimum necessary communication of notices, events, grades, and so forth. Parental volunteering in and presence at the child's school and children's in-school activities. As an independent variable and not merely appearing in the research as a correlate of parental socioeconomic status or family culture and interest in education, this does nothing for children.
Parental involvement with and participation in school-related organizations, such as PTA. Same comment as 4, above. This is not the kind of "parental involvement" that matters. Verbally encouraging a child to "do well in school," and giving rewards or punishment based on grades.
Shorting sleep time to study -- or for other recurring "enrichment" activities such as child custody dinner-visitation activities during the school week.
Child Development Perspectives, 5: Parenting programs to enhance parenting skills. Notwithstanding promotional hype, parenting skills programs have not been shown to result in any clear academic achievement or enhanced outcomes for children.
However, to the extent there is some small success in situations in which these programs address families with serious problems, such as adolescent behavior issues, behavior-based programs work and relationship-oriented programs don't.
Children's educational achievement is not negatively impacted by a parent's lack of fluency in the English language. Single motherhood, while it tends to reduce mothers' participation with children's schools and with their teachers an "involvement" of little or no benefit anyway but bearing on educators' and the public's perceptionsdoes not reduce maternal in-home enhancement of children's education -- where "parental involvement" counts.
The research on fatherlessness universally and often deliberately confounds "father presence or absence" with its frequent correlates in the "What Works" category, above.
Dean Keith Simonton, Scientific Genius: A Psychology of Science. Cambridge University Press "Exceptionally achieving individuals in virtually every human endeavor are more likely to have lost a parent Roe also mentioned Bell's work on illustrious mathematicians, in which around one-quarter had lost a parent before age 10 and nearly one-third before age Maternal depression has been found to reduce mother's in-home educational involvement.
To some extent, children mediate their parents' involvement directly with schools and school activities, and parents also are more likely to become involved because of the success of the children. Television and video game playing appear to be developmental negatives, especially for young children.
Children, especially young children, also need fresh air, sunshine, nature, exercise, and plenty of unstructured time outside just to play.
School systems have a vested interest in broadly defining "parental involvement" to include parental participation in, and donation of time and money to, children's schools.
Be careful in reading the research. This kind of "parental involvement" in education is not a factor in promoting one's own children's achievement, and where it appears to be, that is because it is actually a reflection that parents with more money, time, and interest in education tend also to be more active in children's schools, and parents who already have achieving children tend to become more interested for that reason in children's in-school activities.
Household and family disruption, lack of after-school and study-time routines, irregular sleep habitsand children's not having their own regular, comfortable, quiet places to read, work and think are negatives that will detract from achievement however, correcting for these negatives in the absence of important "what works" factors, above, will have negligible positive effect on their own toward boosting long-term achievement.
Boys are falling behind and "in crisis" in our schools. Trueargues Leonard Sax in Boys Adrift: Sex of parent and children's well-being in single-parent households. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 60 4The greatest predictors of child academic success are 1 the educational level of a child's mother and 2 the socioeconomic level of the home.All Arts and Sciences faculty are committed to the central role of general education in undergraduate degree programs.
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The culture of Australia is a Western culture, derived primarily from Britain but also influenced by the unique geography of Australia, the cultural input of Aboriginal, . Children Literature in a Pluralistic Society Mariela Cuevas ENG/ June 1, Dr. Denese Wolff How theoretical models and critical approaches apply to children’s literature.
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