However, comparison of the sequences of each species shows that the genus is heterogeneous, and may be more reasonably arranged in three clusters
Smooth, painful lymph gland swelling called a bubo, commonly found in the groin, but may occur in the armpits or neck, most often near the site of the initial infection bite or scratch Pain may occur in the area before the swelling appears Gangrene of the extremities such as toes, fingers, lips and tip of the nose.
Additional symptoms include extreme fatigue, gastrointestinal problems, lenticulae black dots scattered throughout the bodydelirium, and coma.
Cause Oriental rat flea Xenopsylla cheopis infected with the Yersinia pestis bacterium which appears as a dark mass in the gut. The foregut of this flea is blocked by a Y.
Bubonic plague is an infection of the lymphatic systemusually resulting from the bite of an infected flea, Xenopsylla cheopis the rat flea. In very rare circumstances, as in the septicemic plaguethe disease can be transmitted by direct contact with infected tissue or exposure to the cough of another human.
The flea is parasitic on house and field rats, and seeks out other prey when its rodent hosts die. The bacteria remain harmless to the flea, allowing the new host to spread the bacteria.
The bacteria form aggregates in the gut of infected fleas and this results in the flea regurgitating ingested blood, which is now infected, into the bite site of a rodent or human host. Once established, bacteria rapidly spread to the lymph nodes and multiply.
As the disease progresses, the lymph nodes can haemorrhage and become swollen and necrotic. Bubonic plague can progress to lethal septicemic plague in some cases. The plague is also known to spread to the lungs and become the disease known as the pneumonic plague.
Diagnosis Laboratory testing is required in order to diagnose and confirm plague. Ideally, confirmation is through the identification of Y. Confirmation of infection can be done by examining serum taken during the early and late stages of infection.
To quickly screen for the Y. Swollen lymph nodes buboes characteristic of bubonic plague, a fluid sample can be taken from them with a needle.
Blood Lungs Treatment Several classes of antibiotics are effective in treating bubonic plague. These include aminoglycosides such as streptomycin and gentamicintetracyclines especially doxycyclineand the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin. Other treatments include oxygen, intravenous fluids, and respiratory support.
People who have had contact with anyone infected by pneumonic plague are given prophylactic antibiotics. Plague of Justinian The first recorded epidemic affected the Eastern Roman Empire Byzantine Empire and was named the Plague of Justinian after emperor Justinian Iwho was infected but survived through extensive treatment.
In the spring ofthe plague arrived in Constantinople, working its way from port city to port city and spreading around the Mediterranean Sealater migrating inland eastward into Asia Minor and west into Greece and Italy.
Procopius, in his work Secret History, declared that Justinian was a demon of an emperor who either created the plague himself or was being punished for his sinfulness. People who died of bubonic plague in a mass grave from — in MartiguesFrance In the Late Middle Ages — Europe experienced the most deadly disease outbreak in history when the Black Death, the infamous pandemic of bubonic plague, hit inkilling a third of the European human population.
Some historians believe that society subsequently became more violent as the mass mortality rate cheapened life and thus increased warfare, crime, popular revolt, waves of flagellants, and persecution. Chinese records also showed a huge outbreak in Mongolia in the early s.UNKNOWN LAB REPORT.
Unknown Number (Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae) Michelle Gudorp General Microbiology. Spring INTRODUCTION. It is important to understand why a person would want to identify between different bacteria.
INDICATIONS. OCUFLOX ® ophthalmic solution is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the following bacteria in the conditions listed below.
Conjuctivitis Gram-Positive Bacteria. Staphylococcus aureus Staphylococcus epidermidis Streptococcus pneumoniae. Gram-Negative Bacteria. According to the unknown chart, it was concluded that the bacterium was Klebsiella pneumoniae. This was the correct identification of the bacterium.
This was the correct identification of the bacterium. From to , we identified babies through population-based pregnancy surveillance at five sites in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Babies were visited at home by community health workers up to ten times from age 0 to 59 days.
Definition. Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) have been defined as carbapenem-nonsusceptible and extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae complex, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Klebsiella rutadeltambor.com exclude ertapenem resistance from the definition.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Invanz ® and other antibacterial drugs, Invanz should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.
When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy.