By Elisabeth Pain Jul. To the public, the Opening Ceremony of the Olympic Games will be the kick-off to a display of festivities, a promise for breathtaking sporting records, and above all a celebration of human performance.
Definition[ edit ] Para-swimming classification is based on a system in which functional criteria are assessed.
Athletes who have different physical disabilities may compete in the same class so long as their functional impairments are similar. As a result, swimming classifications differ from athletics classifications. The most severely affected are in class S1; these swimmers normally use wheelchairs outside of the pool.
Classes are prefixed with the letter "S" for freestylebutterfly and backstroke events, while those prefixed with "SB" are for breaststrokeand those with "SM" for individual medley events. In the case of the breaststroke, for example, the hand and the hip play a crucial role. There are three additional classes, S11S12 and S13for visually impaired swimmers.
The lower number indicates a greater degree of impairment: A final class, S15is for athletes with hearing loss. Visualisation of functional mobility for a S1 competitor Visualisation of functional mobility for a S2 competitor Visualisation of functional vision for a S11 competitor Visualisation of functional vision for a S12 competitor Visualisation of functional vision for a S13 competitor Visualisation of functional hearing for a S15 competitor Governance[ edit ] Swimming was one of the eight sports contested in the first Paralympics, the Summer Paralympics in Rome.
Classification of swimmers is performed by classifiers that are recognised by the IPC. At this time, swimmers were classified based on their medical conditions.
In an effort to clearly describe disabilities and promote fairness, the number of classifications ballooned. This made organizing competitive events difficult as there were too few people in each classification; international events for people with disabilities were said to have as many winners as competitors.
The system had no built-in privacy safeguards and players being classified were not ensured privacy during medical classification nor with their medical records.
Some of the medical classifications appeared arbitrary, with people of different functional levels being put into the same class. This made the results for many games and swimming races appear to be completely arbitrary.
Impacted sportspeople were starting to demand that changes be made to address this. This system had seven classifications. There was a CP class for athletes with hemispasticity who would also compete in the same class against competitors who were single arm above the elbow amputees, had double-arm dysmelia type ectromeliahad single arm paralysis or had a fixed shoulder joint.
There was an intellectual disability class called Class J, and a Class H for people with severe disabilities. BSNW classification events included swimming races from 50 to metres.
The system was later expanded to include nine classes before it was discontinued. It was discarded because of a need to have athletes classified for international competitions.
This caused problems because certain types of disability had a greater negative impact on swimming than others, and the point system did not directly address functional ability. To address this, in point consideration was eliminated for disability types that did not impact performance.
This was a major change, as previously, athletes would be classified immediately before, and even during, an event.
A study by the organising committee and the Polytechnic University of Catalonia in the lead-up to the meeting looked at the results of recent international competitions. It proposed a series of classes, based on the competitive results, for use in Barcelona.
COOB insisted that such a system be implemented to ensure the sport at the Paralympic Games was serious and competitive, instead of recreational. The suggestions were implemented for sports such as swimming and athletics. The first detailed international swimming sport science project was conducted at the Summer Olympics in Seoul.
This was followed by a similar project at the Summer Paralympics in Barcelona.Sports Science & Human Performance Consulting. ID and development, sport science services and implementation, coaching education and applying the latest cutting edge science to improving athletic performance.
Corporations: Applying sport science principles to improving business success. Increase in productivity, stress and performance.
Para-swimming classification is a function-based classification system designed to allow for fair competition in disability swimming. The classes are prefixed with "S" for freestyle, butterfly and backstroke events, "SB" for breaststroke and "SM" for individual medley events.
View Rachel Medley’s profile on LinkedIn, the world's largest professional community. Rachel has 1 job listed on their profile. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Rachel’s Title: Bar Manager at Bluegrass . Sport science is the application of scientific principles to help improve sports performance.
This branch of science has grown dramatically in the last 20 years and has resulted in a greater understanding of the demands of elite sport. The California primary elections to decide candidates for November’s contests were held Tuesday, June 5.
In accordance with the “jungle primary” system in California, the top two candidates for each office, regardless of political party, will contest the general elections on Nov. 6. Improving Nutrition (TRAIN) Nutrition Guidance.
A special thanks to the TRAIN Team for developing the initial guidelines Special Olympics North America (SONA) Special Thanks To the Following for All of Your Help and Support Special Olympics Sports Sciences: Nutrition Guide for Coaches.