In line with this, the different theories were given emphasis on how so many of these were developed by different experts. There came the psychodynamic theory, behavioral, cognitive, interpersonal, and so many more. To relate with our previously discussed module on Behaviorism, let me focus on its strengths and weaknesses as a theory explaining ones behavior and adaptation to learning. Strengths of Behaviorism Behaviorism is based upon observable behaviors, so it is easier to quantify and collect data and information when conducting research.
In combination with cognitive therapy, behavior modification helps autistic children with the acquisition of life-skills Virues-Ortega et al.
Behaviorism has proven its efficacy in contexts that require the performance of convergent and highly context-dependent tasks. Strengths and Weaknesses A central strength of behaviorism is that results can be reliably reproduced experimentally such as in a Skinner box or similar apparatus.
This evident advantage translates into several distinct counter-arguments.
Firstly, behaviorism does not acknowledge active human agency, this is conscious self-awareness Chalmers, which is typically mediated via language. Key properties of human agency are intentionality, forethought and self-reactiveness Bandura,p. Most of human behavior is not based on conditioned, convergent reflexes on a single task, but correlates to preceding mental processes that are divergent and collaborative in nature Funke, ; Eseryel et al.
Besides, divergent thinking is related to developing interpersonal trust Selaro et al.
Since reflexes are strictly defined as physiological interactions, behaviorism cannot explain individual differences in human learning, variations in learning- styles and the influence of personality on learning Rosander, ; Kamarulzaman, The neurological functionality of reflexes is constrained to given brain organization Goffaux et al.
Behavioral studies and therapies in clinical settings also run into ethical problems on how to obtain legal consent for behavior modification, such as for patients with mental disorders and neurological impairments Digdon et al. On the Validity of Animal Studies One of the distinguishing differences between humans and animals is the use of language.
Using an Information Theory approach, Reznikova concludes that animals produce no syntax and provide little evidence for the learning and modification of signals Reznikowa,p. Human language development, by contrast, is tied to the development of Theory of Mind ToM skills Miller, Language acquisition by reinforcement Skinner, can neither sufficiently account for the semantic and pragmatic dimensions of coordinated human speech, nor for the meta-contextual quality of its acts Chomsky, ; Searle, By ignoring cognitive development Skinner,behaviorism deprives itself of fully understanding the role of behavior such as e.
Animal studies can be compromised by animals being exposed to uncontrolled pain and stress variables Rollin,p. An anthropomorphized interpretation can furthermore lead to biased reporting. Conclusion Behaviorism has valid, but limited applications.
Behaviorism remains highly relevant in animal conditioning. It has however, with the advent of neurological imaging technology and the scientific measurement of cognitive processes DeSouza et al.
Behaviorism does have its applications, but they must be seen in the context of human agency. Learned helplessness in humans: Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, The theory of planned behavior.This page helps you learn skills that will help you manage your career more effectively.
Start by understanding how to set career direction, play to your strengths, . Scholarly research on the topic of leadership has witnessed a dramatic increase over the last decade, resulting in the development of diverse leadership theories. (Results Page 4) View and download transformational theory essays examples.
Also discover topics, titles, outlines, thesis statements, and conclusions for your transformational theory essay. The Contribution of the Labelling Theory to Our Understanding of Crime and Deviancy - The Contribution of the Labelling Theory to Our Understanding of Crime and Deviancy We can call a label, or define it as; a mark, name, or even badge.
Dr. William Marston identified the four types of human behavior as Dominance, Influence, Steadiness and Conscientiousness in DISC Theory.
This is known today as the DISC Personality System. Each person has a combination of one, two, or three of these characteristics, composing their unique DISC personality style. Some Thoughts on Psychological Report Writing The following notes include some thoughts of "models" for writing psychological reports.
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