The causes of the 19th century european imperialism in africa

Effects of Imperialism on Europe What impact did conquering and exploiting weaker nations have on Europe? Power and Wealth Power and Wealth The Age of Imperialism was a time frame in which Europe became the most powerful region in the world.

The causes of the 19th century european imperialism in africa

Background[ edit ] David Livingstoneearly explorer of the interior of Africa and fighter against the slave trade By European powers had established small trading posts along the coast, but seldom moved inland.

The causes of the 19th century european imperialism in africa

Even as late as the s, European states still controlled only ten percent of the African continent, with all their territories located near the coast.

Byonly Ethiopia and Liberia remained independent of European control. Industrialisation brought about rapid advancements in transportation and communication, especially in the forms of steamships, railways and telegraphs.

Medical advances also played an important role, especially medicines for tropical diseases. The development of quininean effective treatment for malariamade vast expanses of the tropics more accessible for Europeans.

Another inducement for imperialism arose from the demand for raw materials, especially coppercotton, rubber, palm oilcocoadiamonds, tea, and tinto which European consumers had grown accustomed and upon which European industry had grown dependent.

Additionally, Britain wanted the southern and eastern coasts of Africa for stopover ports on the route to Asia and its empire in India.

These events might detract from the pro-imperialist arguments of colonial lobbyists such as the Alldeutscher VerbandFrancesco Crispi and Jules Ferrywho argued that sheltered overseas markets in Africa would solve the problems of low prices and over-production caused by shrinking continental markets.

Scramble for Africa - Wikipedia

Hobson argued in Imperialism that this shrinking of continental markets was a key factor of the global "New Imperialism" period.

William Easterlyhowever, disagrees with the link made between capitalism and imperialismarguing that colonialism is used mostly to promote state-led development rather than "corporate" development. He has stated that "imperialism is not so clearly linked to capitalism and the free markets While tropical Africa was not a large zone of investment, other overseas regions were.

The vast interior between Egypt and the gold and diamond-rich southern Africa had strategic value in securing the flow of overseas trade. Britain was under political pressure to secure lucrative markets against encroaching rivals in China and its eastern colonies, most notably IndiaMalayaAustralia and New Zealand.

Five Motives for Imperialism

Thus, it was crucial to secure the key waterway between East and West—the Suez Canal. However, a theory that Britain sought to annex East Africa during the onwards, out of geostrategic concerns connected to Egypt especially the Suez Canal[10] [11] has been challenged by historians such as John Darwin and Jonas F.

The growing navies, and new ships driven by steam power, required coaling stations and ports for maintenance. Defense bases were also needed for the protection of sea routes and communication lines, particularly of expensive and vital international waterways such as the Suez Canal.

Scramble for Africa - Wikipedia

Colonies with large native populations were also a source of military power; Britain and France used large numbers of British Indian and North African soldiers, respectively, in many of their colonial wars and would do so again in the coming World Wars.

The same year, Britain occupied Egypt hitherto an autonomous state owing nominal fealty to the Ottoman Empirewhich ruled over Sudan and parts of ChadEritreaand Somalia. A rising industrial power close on the heels of Britain, Germany began its world expansion in the s.

After isolating France by the Dual Alliance with Austria-Hungary and then the Triple Alliance with Italy, Chancellor Otto von Bismarck proposed the —85 Berlin Conferencewhich set the rules of effective control of a foreign territory.

Weltpolitik world policy was the foreign policy adopted by Kaiser Wilhelm II inwith the aim of transforming Germany into a global power through aggressive diplomacy, the acquisition of overseas colonies, and the development of a large navy. At the end of the s, these isolated voices began to be relayed by a real imperialist policy[ citation needed ], backed by mercantilist thesis.

In the beginning of the s, the Deutscher Kolonialverein was created, and got its own magazine inthe Kolonialzeitung. This colonial lobby was also relayed by the nationalist Alldeutscher Verband. Generally, Bismarck was opposed to widespread German colonialism, [18] but he had to resign at the insistence of the new German Emperor Wilhelm II on 18 March Wilhelm II instead adopted a very aggressive policy of colonisation and colonial expansion.

Bythey had given Germany the second-largest naval force in the world roughly three-fifths the size of the Royal Navy.

The causes of the 19th century european imperialism in africa

According to von Tirpitz, this aggressive naval policy was supported by the National Liberal Party rather than by the conservatives, implying that imperialism was supported by the rising middle classes. Nearly all of its overall empire of 2.Video: European Imperialism: Characteristics, Motives & Effects This lesson will explore European imperialism in the 19th and 20th centuries.

In doing this it will define New Imperialism and explain how economic growth, national rivalries, and . In the late 19 th century, for example, European powers clung to the racist belief that inferior races should be conquered in order to “civilize” them.

The Europeans acted on their ethnocentrism, the belief that one race or nation is superior to others. Cause and Effects of New Imperialism What was the New Imperialism? The New Imperialism was the period of colonial expansion by the European powers, United States and Japan in late 19th and early 20th century.

This expansion was achieved through the imperialization of China, India and Africa. INTRODUCTION. In the late 19th century, between roughly and , a handful of European nations conquered most of Africa. Since this came after more than three centuries of relatively cooperative trading activity between Europeans and Africans, it represents a significant departure in world history.

The New Imperialism was the period of colonial expansion by the European powers, United States and Japan in late 19th and early 20th century. This expansion was achieved through the imperialization of China, India and Africa. European colonial activity in Africa was motivated by a variety of factors.

Rivalry between Nations European imperialism in Africa was partly due to rivalries between the different European countries involved, with Britain, Germany and France the dominant powers.

Europe & Africa in the 19th Century