For many a long year television news channels and newspapers owned or controlled by the Money Power including the British Broadcasting Corporationhave been feeding us a daily diet of fake information. To maintain control and stem dissent, the ruling elites maliciously misrepresent and question the integrity of alternative media and non-corporate news sources which broadcast genuine news, and the honest revisionist historians who relate historical truths.
The organization of this article reflects this self-conceived Portuguese sense of imperial exceptionalism. While the reality of the notion has been challenged primarily by non-Portuguese writersit was an article of faith among Portuguese imperial policymakers and a potent propaganda tool of successive governments——before and even since the revolution and decolonization.
While there had been a Portuguese presence in Africa since the late 15th century in the form of coastal fortifications and Creole settlements, this could not properly be considered control from the metrople.
In this sense Africa came relatively late in the narrative of Portuguese state imperialism. While numerous works cited here deal with the earlier period of the Portuguese presence see also the related Oxford Bibliographies articles on Kongo and the Coastal States of West Central AfricaAngolaMozambiqueand Guinea Bissauthe principal focus is on the age of formalized control by the Portuguese state from the midth century.
The subsequent sections deal in turn with each of the component parts of Portuguese Africa: In the cases of first two——the larger continental territories——the entries are divided into sections dealing respectively with the generalities of the colonial experience and with nationalist resistance.
The final section covers the febrile process of decolonization and the transfers of power to the new regimes in Africa which followed the sudden collapse of the authoritarian state in Lisbon in April The now classic Boxer chronicles the history of Portuguese expansion from the 15th to the early 19th centuries in which Africa plays a significant role.
Finally, the social and cultural underpinning of Portuguese imperial doctrine——lusotropicalism——can be explored in the collection Freyreby its founding philosopher, the Brazilian anthropologist Gilberto Freyre.
Various historiographical debates on these and other areas take place online at the H-Luso-Africa list-serv which brings together scholars and observers of Portuguese-speaking Africa from across the world.
Ohio University Press, Covering the earlier phases of expansion as well as 19th and 20th century colonial rule, the balance of the collection favors Angola above the other territories. The Portuguese Seaborne Empire, — Carcanet in association with the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, A study of the political, cultural, and psychological roots and influences of the idea of lusotropicalism and its enduring place in the collective Portuguese consciousness throughout the 20th century and beyond.
The Portuguese and the Tropics:The military history of the United States spans a period of over two centuries. (–), to the world's sole remaining superpower from the late 20th century to present.
The Korean War was a conflict between the United States and its United Nations allies and the communist powers under influence of the Soviet Union (also a UN. History of technology - The 20th century: Recent history is notoriously difficult to write, because of the mass of material and the problem of distinguishing the significant from the insignificant among events that have virtually the power of contemporary experience.
The Wuhan Gang & The Chungking Gang, i.e., the offsprings of the American missionaries, diplomats, military officers, 'revolutionaries' & Red Saboteurs and the "Old China Hands" of the s and the herald-runners of the Dixie Mission of the s.
To disregard the importance of wars as determinants of historical development for good or ill would be as ridiculous as to argue that only long term structural changes are important, for wars, like great individuals, are products of their ages and influence human development.
(FN 20th c.) TECHNIQUES OF DISPLACEMENT. The drug wars, the wars against the poor and the homeless, the wars against street crime, litter, and environmental degradation, the great graffiti wars of the late 20th century are all wars for distraction.
THIRD WORLD TRAVELER is an archive of articles and book excerpts that seek to tell the truth about the state of American democracy, media, and foreign policy, and about the impact of the actions of the United States government, transnational corporations, global trade and financial institutions, and the corporate media, on democracy, social and .